Minimum Hardware Requirements for
Intel 486DX, 66MHz processor or higher
16 MB RAM
VGA Video adapter and display
225 MB free FAT16 hard disk space or
175 MB free FAT32 hard disk space.
Windows 98 requires an Intel-based 486DX/66 processor
with 16MB of RAM. Either FAT16 or FAT32 file systems
can be used, but FAT16 must be used for compatibility
with almost anything else (including Windows NT). FAT32
has many more features than FAT16, but it is not compatible
with Windows NT 4.0 or many other operating systems.
You can convert FAT16 to FAT32 without losing your data,
but you cannot convert FAT32 to FAT16 without reformatting
and losing all your data. If the file system is FAT16,
you must have 225MB of free hard-drive space for the
installation. If the file system is FAT32, you need
only 175MB of free hard-drive space.
|MS-DOS before version 3.0
||12 bit FAT
|MS-DOS 3.0 and up
||16 bit FAT
||16 bit FAT
||16 bit FAT w/32bit VFAT for 32 bit
|Windows 95 OSR2
||32 bit FAT (supported)
||32 bit FAT (supported)
The FAT options you have available and what they can
do for you will be important as you plan for an installation
|Read by Win95:
|Read by NT4.0:
|Read by MS-DOS:
|Read by Win 3.11:
|Cluster size on 2GB:
Planning a Workgroup
Workgroups are peer-to-peer networks that offer share-level
security and do not require a server. Domains are networks
built around a server, and they offer user-level security.
In order for you to have user level security, you must
have a computer running an operating system that can
maintain a database of users. Windows 98 canít do this.
Windows NT and Novell NetWare are operating systems
that can. User level security is much tighter.
Setting up System Policies
To limit what a user can do to the system when he/she
logs on to a computer or network, you can use system
policies. This actually makes changes to the policy
files in the registry. To make changes to the System
Policy you would use the System Policy Editor. Here
you can also specify how you want them enforced. (User,
Group, or Computer) The System Policy Editor edits the
registry so it must not be available to users. It is
located on the Windows 98 CD-ROM under:
Add the SPE with the Add/Remove Programs applet in
the Control Panel. The System Policy Editor only needs
to be installed on one machine on the network. It will
add a shortcut on the Programs menu under Accessories,
but it is a good idea to remove it. You can then access
the SPE by choosing START/RUN, typing POLEDIT, and clicking
The first time you run the SPE it will ask for a template.
These templates give you a policy to start with. Two
templates on the Win98 CD; WINDOWS.ADM and COMMON.ADM,
have the default settings for Win98. (Nothing is locked
down. The user has complete control of the machine.)
They are located in the same directory as the SPE. There
are also other policy files in the same location. (Windows
95 loaded admin.adm instead of windows.adm or common.adm.
Once activated the SPE gives you these options:
You can edit the registry directly here, or edit the
registry of another computer on the network.
In order for the policy to become enforced you must
save it as CONFIG.POL. If you are using share level
security you must save the file in the machineís Windows
directory for it to be enforced. For user level security,
where you need to save it will depend on what type of
network your machine is on.
Ensure user level security is enabled in the Control
Panel Network applet - Access Control tab.
Select Client for Microsoft/NetWare Networks and specify
Domain or preferred server.
Place CONFIG.POL in one of the following directories:
|Windows NT 4.0 Server Primary Domain
|Novell NetWare preferred server
|Novell NetWare NDS-based server
||userís home directory
The policy file will not download automatically if
you are using VLMís or NETX instead of the actual Client
for NetWare Networks.
When logging on to a computer when you have a profile,
are a member of a group that has itís own policy file,
and the computer youíre logging on to has its own policy
file; Win98 checks for user profiles first, then group
policies, then computer name policies.
When creating group policies, the group must already
exist on the security provider. (Server) Also, the file
GROUPPOL.DLL must be installed on each client. (Use
Add/Remove programs/windows setup tab/have disk and
choose grouppol.inf from the same directory as SPE.
If some users are actually members of more than one
group you can set a priority list in the Options menu
under Group Priority.
The System Policy Editor must have templates for the
choices it presents to you. These templates are ASCII
text files with .adm extensions. The two templates loaded
into the System Policy Editor by default are common.adm
User profiles are stored in user.dat files and hold
the configuration information for each user. If the
ability to save settings is turned on, each user will
have his or her own user.dat file. The user.dat file
can be stored locally or on the server. If it is stored
on the server, it is called a roaming profile.
File and Printer Sharing
File and Printer Sharing allows you to share resources
with other users. (Peer to peer) File and Printer Sharing
does not allow you to share individual files, but it
does let you share folders.
Install Client for Microsoft/NetWare Networks
Click on File and Print Sharing
Check boxes for sharing files and sharing printers.
Implicit and Explicit Permissions
A new feature in Windows 98 is the ability to have
implicit and explicit permissions assigned to a folder.
This feature does not exist in any other version of
Windows (even NT).
Implicit Permission - Inherited permissions from a
folder higher in the directory tree.
Explicit Permission - When a folder has itís permissions
changed from the ones it would have inherited.
You must have USER LEVEL security enabled for this
feature. User-level security requires a Domain controller.
After sharing a folder, if you change the parent folderís
permission you will be prompted to:
Apply changes to inside folders
Do not change inside folders
Display each folder name individually (choose which
folders it will be applied to).
Share-Level Access Control
Full, Read Only, Depends on Password (Full or Read
Sharing Resources with other NetWare Clients
Win98 can share files and printers with MS or NetWare
Clients but not both at the same time. There are differences
between MS and NetWare Clients. NetWare requires you
to be in user level security to activate file and printer
sharing. Windows NT allows you to be in share level
The Automated Installation ("The Unattended Setup")
Windows 98 has the ability to set itself up when provided
with a script file. These script files contain information
about what settings Windows should use and can be very
Network Workgroups users can be members of
The script files are then saved with the extension
.INF. One can be used by typing the name of the script
file after the Windows 98 SETUP command. (setup bill.inf)
Alternative ways of automating the Setup.
Use a network Login script
Email a batch file
Microsoft or other SMS tool
The program used to create scripts is the BATCH98 program
(batch.exe). It is located in:
The New Installation
Preparing to run Setup
Copying the files to the computer
Setting up hardware
If you start Setup from MS-DOS it will run ScanDisk
first to check for problems. It will also copy a few
files to your HDD and get a small version of Windows
up and running. This is done because Setup is actually
a Windows based program.
The Upgrade Installation
When you upgrade from Windows 3.x to Windows 98, you'll
find that settings in protocol.ini, system.ini, and
win.ini are used to create the Windows 98 Registry.
(Just like in Windows 95 these files and any files with
the .GRP extension are saved for backward compatibility.)
When you migrate from Windows NT to Windows 98, you
must reinstall all your applications, because the two
operating systems' Registries are not compatible with
Uninstall Windows 98
Use the Add/Remove Programs applet in Control Panel
to uninstall Windows 98. This will only work provided
the following variables are in place:
You chose to save your previous operating system files
| WINDUNDO.DAT and WINDUNDO.INI exist in your root directory.|
| The partition is not compressed.|
| You did not convert to FAT32. (Unless the previous OS
was Win95 OSR2)
When installing Win98 on a computer with MS-DOS 5.0
or later, a dual boot is created automatically. Some
files will be changed when you do this:
|Original DOS Name
When booting to DOS after Win98 is installed, the following
files are changed to:
|Original Win98 Name
On Win3.11 computers you must install Win98 into
a separate directory to make it dual bootable.
You cannot dual boot Win95 and Win98 since they both
use the same boot sector.
For a WinNT dual boot configuration, you need to use
If already running WinNT and you want to install Win98,
boot to DOS and then install Win98. This causes the
machine to boot to a file called BOOTSECT.DOS and any
changes Win98 needs to make to the boot sector will
be made to this file.
You cannot dual boot Win98 with OS2.
Network Server Installation
Windows 98 can use a server-based setup to be installed
from a server. This will keep most or all of the files
on a server, which your PC will connect to each time
Share serverís CD-ROM and run Setup from the client,
or copy Win98 folder from the installation CD to the
server and share the folder. Windows 95ís Netsetup.exe
program is absent from Win98.
Machine Directory - directory on server, which stores
computer-specific configuration, and files (system.dat,
user.dat, .ini files, etc.) for a PC. Is mandatory to
use when the PC does not have a hard drive. Machine
directory can be shared for multiple PCís with the same
Win98 Web Server
A subset of Microsoft's Internet Information Server
(IIS, which runs on Windows NT Server) is available
for Windows 98, where it is known as Peer Web Server.
Minimum, Typical, Custom
Choose directory for install
Win98 Dial-Up Server
Supports only one outbound modem at a time. To install:
Add/Remove programs->Windows Setup tab->Highlight
Communications icon->Click details->Check Dial-up Server
After reboot you must go to Dial-up Networking to the
Connections menu and choose Dial-up Server.
Allow caller access and specify server type.
Map Network Drive
Browse for resource in Network Neighborhood
Right click and choose Map Network Drive.
Specify drive letter (and check "connect at logon" if
Right click on My Computer or Network Neighborhood
icon and specify path with UNC. (Universal Naming Convention)
The following operating systems can act as security
hosts for a network.
Windows NTW 3.5 or later
Windows NT Server 3.5 or later
Novell NetWare 3.x
Novell NetWare 4.x
Novell NetWare as Security Host
Must install user-level security and name the security
host (NetWare server) in the Access Control tab of the
Network applet in the Control Panel.
Reboot and share a folder as you would in File and
Print Sharing. You will obtain a list of users from
the security host that you can use to specify which
users have which rights.
Browsing Microsoft Networks
To keep network traffic down to a minimum, a "Browse
List" is kept by a computer called the "Browse Master".
Any computer running File and Print Sharing has the
ability to be a Browse Master. There is one Browse Master
per workgroup or Domain. Here is how it works:
A computer comes online and sends out a broadcast searching
for the "Browse Master".
When it finds it, the computer sends it the information
(the resources that it can share).
The Browse Master then adds the computer to itís browse
Anytime you attempt to browse using Network Neighborhood,
the computer already knows who the browse master is
and asks for an updated list.
The Browse Master doesnít become overwhelmed because
of the Backup Browsers.
There will be one Backup Browser for every fifteen computers.
This all happens automatically.
Which computer is elected to which role:
The election process: (Seniority is King)
Windows NT Server (Primary Domain Controller)
Windows NT Server
Windows NT Workstation
Windows for Workgroups
If two computers are the same the newer version of
the OS wins. If these are the same also, then the one
who has been online the longest wins.
You can also give a computer an edge up in the election
process if you have a preference as to who the Browse
Master is. This is called the "Preferred Browse Master".
To make a computer a preferred Browse Master edit the
properties for File and Print Sharing for Microsoft
Networks. You will see options for "Browse Master and
Choose Browse Master
Specify "Enabled" (Other options are "Auto" and Disabled")
LM Announce is used for older LAN Manager networks.
It should be set to "No" unless actually on a LAN
Manager network. LM Announce causes a computer to
announce itself via broadcast periodically.
Backup Browsers contact the Browse Master every 15
minutes to alert the Browse Master that they are still
online. Whenever a change is made to the Master Browse
List the Browse Master notifies the Backup Browsers
who in return request updated lists. When a computer
is shut down properly on the network it notifies the
Browse Master that it can be removed from the Browse
List. If a computer is not shut down correctly and does
not get removed form the Browse List, it may continue
to show up for 15 minutes if it is a Backup Browser,
or 45 minutes if just a regular computer on the network.
Logon to Windows NT Domain
Once Client for Microsoft Networks is installed in
the Network Components box of the Network Applet in
Control Panel, highlight it and click Properties. You
will be prompted for the name of the NT domain and whether
you want to do a quick logon or restore network connections
every time you logon.
Quick Logon- Windows logs you on the network but
network drives are not restored until you use them.
Logon and Restore Network Connections- Windows logs
you on and verifies network drives.
Sharing Resources with NetWare clients
NT has permissions NetWare has rights
||Windows NT Permission
||Write to Files
||Change File Attributes
|Access Control Change
Browsing NetWare Networks
To make other computers aware of its resources on a
NetWare Network, a NetWare server uses Server Advertising
Protocol. (SAP) All NetWare servers broadcast an SAP
packet every 60 seconds.
NetWare clients using NETX or VLM can only see computers
that are SAP enabled.
In order for a Win98 computer to be seen and browsed
in Network Neighborhood it must have SAP enabled also.
(UNC can be used to connect to a WIN98 computer without
You can install SAP when setting up File and Printer
Sharing for NetWare Networks.
Remember you can only run one File and Printer Sharing
client at a time. (NetWare or NT)
Workgroup Advertising in the Novell client accomplishes
the same as Browse Master does in Microsoft.
Novell NetWare typically uses the IPX (AKA NWLink)
protocol for network communications. Novell
NetWare 4.11 has TCP/IP capabilities. Frame type describes
the format used to encapsulate IPX packets, and must
be the same on connecting systems.
Novell NetWare by default does not support long file
names. To enable long file names on your NetWare server,
enable OS/2 name space.
Client for NetWare is needed for connecting to Novell
Client for NetWare uses NCP (NetWare Core Protocol)
as the redirector.
ODI is Novell's version of NDIS.
File and Print sharing for NetWare is needed when sharing
files to other NetWare clients. This requires user-level
security for pass-through authentication to a NetWare
NetWare servers advertise their services using the
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) to make broadcasts
over the network. Routers will maintain a database of
available NetWare servers.
Syscon - administers accounting, file server, user and
Filer - configures volume, file, and directory information.
Pconsole - manages NetWare print queues.
Netadmin - manages NDS services.
Connecting to NetWare
Clients you can use to connect Win98 to a NetWare Server:
Client for Microsoft Networks, built in, 32 bit
Novell NetWare 3.x real mode networking using NETX,
Novell NetWare 4.x real mode networking using VLM, not
Novell NetWare Client 32, protected mode client w/NDS
Microsoft Service for NetWare Directory Services 32
bit, protected, w/NDS
NetWare servers communicate with NetWare Core Protocol
(NCP). The above clients allow Win98 to communicate
with computers using NCP. Microsoft Networks use Server
Message Blocks (SMB) to communicate.
NetWare 3.x servers use a bindery to store users and
groups. The bindery is server-centric which means you
cannot share this information between servers.(If you
need a resource from two different servers you must
have a user account on each.)
NetWare 4.x uses NetWare Directory Services (NDS) instead
of a bindery. It is not server-centric. Many applications
are not NDS aware so NetWare 4.x can emulate a bindery.
Main reason to use NetWare clients is the support for
VLM and NETX functions.
When choosing a protocol to install, stay with same
vendor as client.
When setting up which frame type to use, use the following
|Type of Network
|NetWare 3.11 or earlier
|NetWare 3.12 or later
Windows 98 can be set to choose the frame type it detects
on the network checking in this order:
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Networks designed to run at very high speed; must have
a connection established first; they then transfer data in
|ATM Call Manager
||Establishes the connection.
|ATM LAN Emulation Client
||Software provides connectivity to
|ATM Emulated LAN
||Implements Virtual LAN to segment
portion of LANís into smaller LANís.
In Network applet choose:
Add->Adapter->Microsoft->Microsoft VPN Adapter->
Create Dial-up Networking connection to ISP if you
donít already have one.
Create another New Connection this time using the VPN
adapter instead of the modem.
Type in the PPTP Server address.
Now launch the Dial-up connection first. Once connected,
launch the VPN connection.
Microsoft DLC (Data Link Control)
Protocol for connecting to mainframes such as IBM AS/400s.
Protocol that supports wireless networks. Transfers
up to 4Mbps.
Universal Serial Bus
The Universal Serial Bus (USB) provides plug-and-play
compatibility for external devices such as keyboards
and mice. You can add up to 127 devices with simultaneous
connections and speeds from 1.5 to 12 Mbps. Developed
by Compaq, Digital Equipment, IBM, Intel, Microsoft,
NEC and Northern Telecom.
| Plug and Play can detect peripherals as soon as theyíre
| No resource conflicts|
| Attach or detach any device without powering down or
| All peripherals will use the same type of connector.
Data on USB can be transferred in asynchronous or isochronous
mode. Isochronous is transferred at a guaranteed rate
of 12 Mbps.
Troubleshooting USB devices:
Configuration of the hub (Power, number of tiers.)
Wrong firmware version Win98 does not support version
000 of the USB controller.
Plug device into another hub or directly into host.
Remove controller from Device Manager and let Win98
IEEE 1394 Serial Bus (FireWire)
IEEE 1394 FireWire is similar to USB, but is intended
for devices that operate at higher speeds. It provides
bus support for high-bandwidth external devices, such
as video cameras and DVDís. Data transfer speeds include
100 Mbps, 200 Mbps, and 400 Mbps.
Asynchronous and Isochronous
Works like this:
|A signal is sent across the bus to put all devices in
a suspended state.|
| One device becomes the root node.|
| Devices attached to root node are parents.|
| Devices attached to parents are child devices.|
| All nodes select one of 63 unique bus IDís.|
| All nodes are removed from suspension.|
| Isochronous traffic
Microsoft Backup Utility is used to create and restore
backups. It does not work with QIC-40 tapes. The Backup
Wizard can create and view backup jobs, but it can't
change them. Differential backups back up all the files
added or changed since the last full backup, and leave
archived bits unchanged. Incremental backups back up
all the files added or changed since the incremental backup
and reset the archived bits. Use the Task Scheduler
to automate your backups.
TCP/IP is an Internet protocol currently used for most
networking situations. Each computer using TCP/IP will
contain a unique address in a x.x.x.x format (where
each x equals a number between 0 and 255) and a subnet
Subnet mask - A value that is used to distinguish the
network ID portion of the IP address from the host ID.
Default gateway - A TCP/IP address for the host, which
you would send packets to be sent elsewhere on the network.
Common TCP/IP problems are caused by incorrect subnet
masks and default gateways.
Broadcasts - a computer will broadcast the NetBIOS
name it is searching for across the network. The machine
with the matching NetBIOS name will send a reply to
the broadcasting computer with its IP address.
Win98 uses three methods to resolve NetBIOS names to
|LMHOSTS - a file normally located in the Windows
directory which contains a list of frequently used
IP addresses and hostnames.|
|WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) - Win98
contacts an NT Server running this service to
dynamically resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses.|
|DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - Win98
contacts an NT Server running this service to automatically
obtain an IP address each time it logs onto the
Enabling Remote Administration
On the computer to be administered remotely:
|Use share or user-level security|
|Password applet of the Control Panel|
|Remote Administration Tab|
|Check "Allow Remote Administration" box|
|Set password (share level security)|
|If you are using user-level security specify users who
have permission to administer remotely.
On NT network, the Domain Admins group automatically
receives the right to administer remotely.
On a Novell Network the Supervisor account for NetWare
3.x or the Admin account on NetWare 4.x will also automatically
be given the right to administer remotely.
Once enabled two folders are shared to the Network
Admin$ - gives administration access to the hard disk.
IPC$ - provides communication channel for computers
Install the Remote Registry Service from Network applet
of the Control Panel.
After this is done you can also use REGEDIT to remotely
edit a computer's registry.
Net Watcher and System Monitor
|Lets you disconnect users who are accessing the remote
| Close files connected users have open.|
| Start or stop sharing a resource.|
| View folders being shared to the network and who is
|System Monitor can be used to monitor a remote computer
if remote administration has been enabled.|
divides the system into categories, and further divides
each category into items.|
| New to Windows 98, System
Monitor allows the creation of log files.|
| In System
Monitor, the default category and item viewed is Kernel
| The default interval for chart updates
in System Monitor is every five seconds.
Image Color Matching - Allows applications to provide
closer matches for colors between graphics displayed
on the screen and the same graphics when they are printed.
Each device's properties are stored in a profile. These
profiles were designed by InterColor 3.0 (a number of
vendors which included Kodak, Microsoft, Apple, Silicon
Bi-directional printing - Allows two-way communication
between the printer and computer. The printer is able
to send status and diagnostic information to the computer
and its operating system.
What is needed for bi-directional printing?
- A bi-directional printer
-An IEEE 1284 compliant printer cable
- A bi-directional printer port on the computer
Unidrv.dll - Printer driver which is used to print
to all non-postscript printers.
Friendly Names - Allows printer to be named with a
"normal" name which is up to 32 characters in length.
EMF Spooling - Increases performance in the way the
computer spools print jobs to the temporary file and
allows the application to return to a usable state quicker.
MS-DOS application printing support
Windows 3.x and DOS-based files have been known to
have printing problems in Windows 98. The problem is
that the program will say that it has spooled the print
job to the printer, but the printer never receives the
job. The problem is being caused by the program's inability
to understand the Windows 98 printing system. Windows
98 has included an MS-DOS printing compatibility feature
to allow older programs to print to a virtual LPT port.
Windows 98 will map an LPT port to the desired print
queue, which the older program recognizes.
Every printer has an icon, which refers to how it
is used to print:
Printer icon with a hand icon - local printer which
Printer icon alone - local printer unshared
Printer icon with cable attached to bottom - network
Printer icon with diskette - printer which is set to
print to a file
Point-and-print - the method of using drag and drop
to print a document. For example, you can create a shortcut
to a printer on your desktop. Then, you can take an
MS Word document and drag it to the printer icon. This
will then print the document without the need to start
IEEE 1284 compliant printers with the appropriate cable
can provide unsolicited information to the user, reporting
low toner, lack of paper, and so forth.
Spool data format:
EMF returns control of the application faster than RAW.
Asynchronous identification channel between the printer
and the computer.
Application Data folder (address book, mail, news)
My Documents folder
Start Menu folder
Temporary Internet files folder
Full = All
Differential = New and changed files since full backup
(No archive attribute,Slow to do, Fast to restore)
Incremental =Files that are new or changed since the
last incremental backup (Archive attribute,Fast to do,
Slow to restore)
|Temporary Internet files
||Windows\Temporary Internet Files
|Downloaded Program Files
||Windows\Downloaded Prgram Files
||Empties the Recycle Bin
Large Disk Support
Large-disk support involves using FAT32, the absence
of which implies the use of FAT16. By using the FAT32
Drive Converter (cvtl.exe), you can convert FAT16 to
FAT32 without losing data. You cannot convert from FAT32
to FAT16 without formatting the drive and losing all
Fat32 conversion in Real Mode
CVT.EXE /CVT32 -Command line utility for fat32 conversion.
/HIB- Checks for hibernation
You back up the Registry with the scanregw command
and restore it with scanreg /restore. You can compress
a disk with the DriveSpace3 utility and the Compression
Agent (cmpagent. exe). Compression can be in either
UltraPack or HiPack format. Partitioning is done with
Ultrapack- Best compression
Highpack- Best performance
The Microsoft Family Logon allows users to select their
name from a list of recognized users during logon, rather
than having to type it in the old-fashioned way.
Disk Defragmenter uses log files of application access
to find out which programs are used most and which files
they need to run, then places them contiguously to speed
The Maintenance wizard schedules tasks to run automatically
in unattended mode. The Task Scheduler submits for processing
those jobs that the Maintenance wizard has chosen and
all other unattended jobs. The queue can be viewed from
Start|Program Files|Accessories|System Tools|Scheduled
Tasks. The Update wizard is used to download patches
The System File Checker is used to look for corruption,
deletion, or modification to the core files of the Windows
98 operating system. It uses a base file to compare
what it finds with what it knows should be there. The
System File Checker can be used to restore a file from
the media or to update the base file.
Detection Log Files
Windows 98 has several log files generated to detect
and troubleshoot problems:
SETUPLOG.TXT- Used to log installation of Windows98.
Will note last utility run prior to a system halt.
| DETCRASH.LOG- Used to log hardware detection during
setup. Readable only by setup to determine which
module was running when the system halted.|
|DETLOG.TXT- Equivalent of DETCRASH.LOG written in a
| NETLOG.TXT- Logs detected network component information.|
| IOS.LOG - Logs error messages from the SCSI drivers.|
| PPPLOG.TXT - Logs PPP and dial-up activity.|
The ASCII logs created during installation (setuplog.txt
and detlog.txt ) can give you the first clues to solving
installation problems. The detcrash.log is a binary
file created during installation for use in rebooting
your system after a crash.
The infamous Windows 98 Registry
The Registry is designed as a database used by OLE
to store information on OLE servers. It is used by Windows
98 to store the information typically found in Windows
3.x .INI files and the reg.dat file. The Registry can
be used for troubleshooting and enhancing performance
in Windows 98. The registry is a hierarchical tree,
which contains information about many things in the
computer. The following is a list of the Registry subtrees
and what they contain:
The Registry contains three properties: Name, Data
Type, and Value. The Data Type can be a binary value
(a collection of bits), a string value (a string of
readable characters) or a DWORD value (a binary value
limited to 4 bytes).
||Information stored within
||Contains information about OLE servers
and file associations. It contains the same information
that is typically stored in the reg.dat in Windows
||Contains the preferences of the user
who is currently logged in. Receives stored information
from the user's subtree located in HKEY_USERS.
||Contains hardware information and
settings for any device ever installed in the computer.
||Contains preferences for every user
that has ever logged into the computer.
||Contains settings for all hardware
devices currently installed in the computer. Does
not contain settings for devices included in HKEY_DYN_DATA.
||Contains dynamically stored data on
Version Conflict Manager automatically overwrites newer
files with Windows 98 system files. The Microsoft System
Information Utility is used to view system information
and provide a launch pad for system tools.
|The System Configuration Utility can be used to
change startup files and modes.|
|Connectivity problems can be caused by incorrect
protocols or frame types.|
|DOS programs can use printers that are mapped to
them by the NET USE commands.|
|ScanDisk looks for and fixes errors on most writable
|ScanReg is the DOS version of the Registry Checker,
and ScanRegW is the Windows version of the same tool.|
|You can edit the msdos.sys file to have the workstation
always prompt you with a menu if you boot multiple
operating systems or want the Startup menu.|
Intel Memory Protection Architecture:
The 386 architecture has four privilege levels designed
to protect data from being damaged. Level 0 is the highest,
and level 3 is the lowest. Windows 98 only uses levels
0 and 3. It uses level 0 for 98 core components and
level 3 for user applications and non-critical components.
A virtual machine is a virtual environment created
by the operating system in memory. Virtual machines
run in ring 3 of the Intel architecture. These are designed
to allocate resources to programs that might normally
be halted by other programs in memory. Each MS-DOS application
runs in its own virtual machine, as they are designed
to have total and uninterrupted access to all system
resources. All other non-MS-DOS based programs run in
the System virtual machine.
Windows 98 Core Components
Windows 98 has three core components: Kernel, User
and GDI. All three are .DLL files, which reside in the
system as both 16-bit and 32-bit applications to maintain
Kernel - Responsible for basic O/S functionality,
managing virtual memory, task scheduling, and File I/O
User - Manages the user interface, including
input from devices and interaction with drivers.
GDI - Responsible for all graphics manipulation.
Plug and Play
Plug and Play - designed for hardware installation
to require no intervention from the user.
A plug and play system needs to consist of the following
to be complete:
| A plug and play operating system|
| A plug and play BIOS|
| Plug and play hardware|
Legacy Cards - Hardware designed prior to Plug and
Play which, when installed, will not automatically be
setup by the OS and must be setup manually.
Bus Enumerator - Type of driver based on a specific
bus architecture. Used to build the hardware tree in
Plug and Play Docking
Docking - The process which a computer uses to establish
connection with a docking station.
There are three types of docking:
Hot - Computer can be at full power when it is docked
Warm - Computer can be in sleep mode when it is docked
Cold - Computer must be turned off before being docked
IFS (Installable File System) - architecture which
allows multiple file systems to coexist on the same
VFAT - 32-bit virtualized File Allocation Table used
VCache - 32-bit protected mode cache driver, which replaces
the real-mode SmartDrive.
Long File Names
Win98 supports extended file names which can contain
up to 255 characters, unlike DOS, which was limited
to the 8.3 structure. In Win98, each long file name
has a duplicate 8.3 for backward compatibility.
Conventional Memory - First 640k of RAM, used for DOS
applications and TSR's.
Upper Memory - 384k RAM located between 640k and 1MB.
Used to load MS-DOS device drivers to help increase
space available for DOS applications.
High Memory Area - Region between 1MB and 1088k.
Extended Memory - Region extending from 1088k to the
end of the memory. Was created for DOS applications
to be able to access RAM outside of the first 640k.
Expanded Memory - Uses bank-switching to quickly page
data in and out of memory.
Virtual Address Spaces
Each process is allocated a virtual address space for
the process's threads to use. This virtual space appears
to be 4GB in size, with 2GB to process for its storage,
and 2GB for operating system components.
0-4MB MS-DOS Compatibility Arena
-- The lower 4m are reserved for real-mode device drivers,
TSRs and 16-bit applications.
4MB-2GB 32-Bit Windows Applications (Private Arena) -- This
area is reserved for 32-bit Windows applications, which
receive their own unique address space.
2GB-3GB DLLs and Shared Objects (Shared Arena) -- This area
is used to share core system components, shared DLLs,
and 16-bit Windows applications.
3GB-4GB Reserved System Area -- Ring 0 components are mapped
into this area; this area is not accessible by Ring
Threads and Processes
Thread - The basic entity to which the operating system
allocates access to the CPU.
Process - The code, data and resources which makeup
and application. Each process contains at least one
thread that executes the process code.
Thread Priorities - Used to determine which thread
will be allowed to run next. Each thread can have a
priority number between 0 and 31 with 31 being the highest
priority. The ranges of 0-31 are for NT compatibility.
The priority values are divided into two sections: 0-15
for variable priority threads, and 16-31 for fixed priority
Thread Scheduling - there are three states a thread
can be in:
Ready - Thread is ready to be executed by the scheduler.
Waiting - Thread is waiting for an event to occur to
come into the ready state.
Running - Thread is running; only one thread can be
running at one time.
Primary Scheduler - Responsible for making sure the
highest priority thread is running.
Secondary Scheduler - Makes sure no thread hogs the
Pre-emptive multitasking - The O/S divides time into
slices (20ms for Win98) and distributes them evenly
between running applications.
Cooperative multitasking - Applications are required
to give up control of the CPU and let other applications
take their turn. Some applications tend to hog the CPU
using this method.
Multithreading - Used by the pre-emptive multitasking
in Win98 to allow an application to have multiple paths
of execution (threads).
VGA fallback - ensures that an incompatible video driver
will not prevent you from accessing the system. For
this to work there must be a line in the [boot] section
of the system.ini reading DisplayFallback=0. The color
depth is measured in bpp (bits per pixel). The following
is a chart relative to the relationship between bpp
and color depth.
Color Depth /
16 Colors/4 bpp
256 Colors/8 bpp
32k Colors (16-bit)/15 bpp
64k Colors (16-bit)/16 bpp
16.7 million Colors/24 bpp