Stand: 07.01.2004 

Copyright by Cramsession   ----- Word 2002 -----

Inserting and Modifying Text

Insert, modify, and move text and symbols

By default, Word 2002 operates in Insert mode, where inserted text can be placed without overwriting subsequent text. Overtype mode allows you to plow over text if you place your insertion point within existing text. Enable Overtype mode by double-clicking the OVR indicator on the status bar. You can enable Extended mode by double-clicking the EXT indicator in the status bar. Extended mode allows you to select letters, words, sentences or paragraphs by using your keyboard arrow keys. You can also move text by selecting the text to be moved, placing the mouse pointer anywhere within it, and dragging the selection to its new location in the document. This feature, called drag-and-drop text editing, can be toggled by selecting Tools => Options, clicking the Edit tab, and clearing the Drag-and-drop text editing check box. Copying or moving text using Word 2002's Cut, Copy, Paste, and Paste Special tools can be accomplished in four steps: 1. Select the text to be moved or copied. 2. Click the Cut or Copy buttons on the formatting toolbar. Alternatively, right-click inside the selected text and choose Cut or Copy from the shortcut menu. 3. Place the cursor in the destination location. (This is the step most people miss.)


4. Click the Paste button on the Formatting toolbar, or right-click in the destination location and choose Paste from the shortcut menu.


You can also perform the above steps by using shortcut keystrokes:

CTRL+C is copy;

CTRL+X is cut;

CTRL+V is paste.


Notice that when you paste information into a Word 2002 document, you will see the Paste Options button. Click it to choose whether to specify the pasted text keep its original formatting, that it match the formatting of the current document, or to keep only plain text.



The Paste Special command has largely been made obsolete in Word 2002 with the Paste Options smart tag; however, it is nonetheless useful for pasting text or graphics in a different format from which they were originally. In step 4 of the above procedure, click Edit -> Paste Special.... For example, text copied from a browser in HTML format can be pasted into Word 2002 as plain text, greatly reducing potential formatting problems in the future.



To insert a symbol that does not appear on your keyboard, place the cursor in the document where you want to insert the symbol. Click Insert => Symbol. In the Symbol dialog box, select an appropriate font from the Font drop-down list box (the so-called "Dingbat" fonts, such as Webdings and Wingdings, are particularly useful for using custom bullet characters). For convenience, a gallery of recently used symbols appears beneath Recently used symbols:. Click Insert to place the selected symbol into your document at the location of the insertion point.



The Special Characters tab contains frequently used symbols such as copyright, trademark and the Em and En dashes. Again, select the desired symbol and click Insert to place the symbol at the location of your insertion point.



Apply and modify text formats

Text formatting can be done either through the Formatting toolbar or the Font dialog box. The Formatting toolbar is a “quick and dirty” method for adjusting font, font size, bold, italic, and underline, and font color.


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The Font dialog box offers many more options than the Formatting toolbar. Besides allowing you to change the font, font style, size, and color, you can also choose an alternate underline style and choose from a wide variety of font effects.



Correct spelling and grammar usage

By default, Word 2002 will automatically correct any misspellings that it finds. In these cases, a small blue smart tag indicator bar will appear beneath the first letter of each word that was replaced. The smart tag indicator will appear when you move your mouse pointer over the word.



When you hover your mouse pointer over the smart tag indicator, the AutoCorrect Options button will appear. Click the AutoCorrect Options button to display actions you can take regarding the automatically corrected word. You can instruct word to revert the word to what it was prior to autocorrecting, you instruct Word to stop automatically correcting that word, or you can select Control AutoCorrect Options... to invoke the AutoCorrect dialog box.



When Word’s AutoCorrect feature cannot make an automatic suggestion, Word will underline misspelled words with a red “squiggly” line and words and phrases using incorrect grammar with a green “squiggly” line. Right-click over a marked word to get a shortcut menu with appropriate spelling and grammar options.



Right-click on a word flagged with green squiggles and the shortcut menu will offer suggestions or allow you to run a grammar check on the document.



To perform a formal spell-check of a document, click the Spelling and Grammar button on the Standard toolbar, click Tools => Spelling and Grammar, or use the F7 shortcut key. The Spelling and Grammar dialog box appears.



Word 2002 will proceed to locate all of the spelling errors it finds in the document. If you want to keep your original word, click Ignore Once, Ignore All, or, to permanently retain a word’s spelling for all future documents, click Add to Dictionary. To include a grammar check in the spelling check, ensure that Check Grammar is enabled. For misspelled words, you can click Change to replace the present occurrence, Change All to change all occurrences, or AutoCorrect to instruct Word to automatically substitute the corrected word for the misspelled word from now on.


Apply text effects

Text effects such as Blinking Background and Las Vegas Lights are found in the Text Effects tab of the Font dialog box. Select the text to be formatted, open the Font dialog box, navigate to the Text Effects tab, select a text effect from the list beneath Animations:, and click OK.



Enter and format date and time

To insert the date and/or time into a document, first, place the cursor where you want to insert the date or time into your document. Second, click Insert => Date and Time. Under Available formats, select the appropriate date or time format. If you need the date or time to automatically update itself, place a check in Update automatically.



To make the selected date and time format the default setting, click Default... and answer Yes in the ensuing dialog box.


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Apply character styles

A style is a predefined set of formats that you can apply over and over again to selected paragraphs, text, tables or lists. Character styles are used to apply predefined formatting to selected text within a paragraph. For example, you could create a character style that would apply bold and italics to selected text. Thereafter, text marked with the character style would retain its bold and italic formatting, regardless of any style changes made to the surrounding paragraph.


Character styles are accessed through the Styles and Formatting task pane. To invoke the Styles and Formatting task pane, click the Styles and Formatting button on the Formatting toolbar.


Task panes are an important new feature of Word 2002. The Styles and Formatting task pane is only one of eight available task panes. Use the Other Task Panes arrow to open the task pane menu and select another task pane.



Character styles are marked with the graphic 107 icon. To apply a character style to selected text, simply click the appropriate character style in the Pick formatting to apply list. The Show: drop-down list allows you to customize which of the available styles that are available in the current template that you see in the task pane list.



To customize the types of styles that you want to see in the Styles and Formatting styles list, click Custom... from the Show: drop-down list. In the Format Settings dialog box, use the Styles to be visible: check list to decide exactly which types of styles that you want to see in your style list.



Creating and Modifying Paragraphs

Modify paragraph formats

To quickly and easily set paragraph alignment, place the cursor anywhere within the desired paragraph and click the Align Left, Center, Align Right, or Justify buttons from the Formatting toolbar. Justify forces the selected paragraph(s) to flush left and right. To do this, Word 2002 often creates extra spaces between letters and between words, which can affect document legibility.



To change line spacing or to add/subtract space between paragraphs, click Format => Paragraph. Choose one of the six line-spacing options in the Line spacing: drop-down list box. For some options you will need to specify information in the By: text box. For example, to specify three spaces between every line, select Multiple for Line spacing: and 3 for At:.

To add or remove buffer space between selected paragraphs, adjust the values in the Before: and After: spin boxes.




Add Borders

You can add a border to any or all sides of selected paragraph(s), to all pages in a document, to pages in a section, to the first page only, or to all pages except the first, in many different line styles and colors. First, highlight the appropriate paragraph(s), and then click Format -> Borders and Shading. The Borders tab gives you the ability either to choose a preset paragraph border style, or to design your own using different line styles and position options.



Click Options: to invoke the Border and Shading Options dialog box. Here you can adjust how far your border lies from its enclosed text.




Horizontal Lines

Horizontal lines are another cool feature of Word 2002. To place a horizontal line in your document, open the Borders and Shading dialog box and click Horizontal Line.... In the Horizontal Line dialog box, scroll through the list until you settle on a line style (they are all GIF images, actually). Next, click OK to place the line at the insertion point in your document. If you have a horizontal line image that you want to import, click Import... and browse to the file. Hover your mouse over a sample to learn the image specifications of the selected line.




Paragraph Shading

Paragraph shading is done under the Shading tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box. Choose a shade color in the Fill portion and a shading gradient in the Patterns and Style: area of the Borders and Shading dialog box. Select whether you would like to apply the shading options to selected text or the entire paragraph by making the appropriate choice beneath Apply to:.



Line and Paragraph Spacing


Select the paragraph(s) to which you want to change line spacing or paragraph spacing, then click Format => Paragraph. Set paragraph indents by adjusting the values in the Left: and Right: spin boxes. Set first-line or hanging indents by selecting the appropriate option from the Special: drop-down list box and entering the appropriate measurement in the By: text box.



An alternative method for setting paragraph indents is by using the Indent markers

on the ruler.


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Yet another way to indent (albeit only a left indent) is by using the Increase Indent

and the Decrease Indent buttons on the Formatting toolbar.


Adjusting line spacing within paragraphs is much easier with Word 2002, as line spacing options can now be tweaked by using the Line Spacing button on the Formatting toolbar. Clicking the More: option opens the Paragraph dialog box.



Set and modify tabs

To set tab stops, select the paragraph then click at the far left of the horizontal ruler

until the icon changes to the type of tab you want. The five different tab stops are

shown and described in the following graphic:



After you have selected the type of tab stop, click on the horizontal ruler where you

want to set a tab stop. To set precise measurements for tabs, click Format =>

Tabs.... In the Tabs dialog box, set precise values for the type(s) of tab stops

desired in the document.



To move tab stops, place your cursor within the appropriate paragraph, and drag the

tab marker on the horizontal ruler to its new location. To clear tab stops, simply drag

the tab stop off the ruler into the document space.



Tab Leader

A dot leader is normally seen in a table of contents, but you can create a dot leader at anytime by typing the text that will immediately precede the leader, and then

clicking Format => Tabs. In the Tab stop position: area of the Tabs dialog box,

type the position for a new tab, or select an existing tab stop to which you will add

leader characters. Next, under Alignment, select the alignment for text typed at the

tab stop. Finally, under Leader, click the leader style that you prefer and click Set.




Apply bullet, outline, and number format to paragraphs

Word 2002 automatically assumes that you are creating a numbered list whenever it sees a number followed by a period or a closed parenthesis. To manually start a bulleted or a numbered list, place your insertion point in the document where you want the list to begin and click either the Bullets or Numbering buttons on the Formatting toolbar.


You can “turn off” list entry mode by pressing ENTER twice after your last list item. For greater flexibility with bullet and number characters, click Format => Bullets and Numbering.... The Bulleted tab contains options for bulleted lists. Simply select the desired bullet style from the sample display and click OK. For greater flexibility, select a bullet style from the display and click Customize....



The Customize Bulleted List dialog allows you to tweak the bullet character, bullet position, and text position for your bulleted list.




Custom Numbered List

To create a custom numbered list, click Format => Bullets and Numbering... and navigate to the Numbered tab. Again, select a starting style and click Customize... to adjust the style to suit your needs.



The Customize Numbered List dialog box allows you to change the number format, number style, number position and text position for all elements of your list.



The procedure for creating a custom outline numbered list is much the same, except that the options can be found on the Outline Numbered tab of the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.


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List Styles

Word 2002’s new List Styles feature allows you to create and store your own bulleted or numbered list styles. Navigate to the List Styles tab of the Bullets and Numbering dialog box and click Add....



In the New Style dialog box, you can go to town creating a fully custom bulleted or numbered list style. Your new entry will be stored in the List Styles: list of the Bullets and Numbering dialog box, as well as in the style list of the Styles and Formatting task pane.




Remember that a list style is exactly like a character style or a paragraph style: just a collection of formats that are named and stored and can be reapplied numerous times in a document.

Apply paragraph styles


A paragraph style is a collection of paragraph formatting elements (basically any option that is available in either the Paragraph or Font dialog boxes) that can be named and used repeatedly throughout a document. The rules for applying paragraph styles are exactly the same as those for applying character styles. Paragraph styles show up in the Styles and Formatting task pane with a paragraph icon .


Hovering your mouse over a style (any style type) reveals all of the paragraph and character formatting that comprise the style.



Hovering your mouse over a style reveals a drop-down list box. Options include Modify... to make changes to the selected style; Update to Match Selection, which will modify the selected style to match the formatting that is applied to currently selected text in the document; and Delete..., which is only available for styles that you create. The Select All: option will select all instances of that style in your document.



Click the Other Task Panes arrow on the Task Pane toolbar and select Reveal Formatting. The Reveal Formatting task pane functions similarly to the Reveal Codes feature of WordPerfect. For any currently selected text (or the text in which the insertion point is currently placed), all aspects of paragraph and character formatting are listed. Click any of the hyperlinked terms to open the corresponding dialog box. For instance, clicking the Font: hyperlink opens the Font dialog box.



Hover your mouse in the Selected Text area of the Reveal Formatting task pane and you will find options related to the formatting of your currently selected text.



Formatting Documents

Create and modify a header and footer

To add headers or footers to a document, click View => Header and Footer. To create a header, enter your desired text or graphics in the header area. To create a footer, click the Switch Between Header and Footer button on the Header and Footer toolbar to move to the footer area.


Spend some time familiarizing yourself with all functions available on the Header and

Footer toolbar.



When you create or change a header or footer, the header or footer appears

throughout the entire document. To have a different header or footer for part of a

document, highlight the section to be changed and deselect the Same as Previous

button on the Header and Footer toolbar.


Apply and modify column settings

To convert selected text or an entire document into newspaper columns, select the

appropriate text or press CTRL+A to select the entire document. Next, click Format

=> Columns. In the Columns dialog box, you can either choose one of Word

2000’s five preset column formats or design your own. If you choose to convert only

selected text to newspaper columns, then Word 2002 will automatically place section

breaks before and after the selected text to accommodate the different page




A shortcut method for creating newspaper columns is by clicking the Columns button on the Standard toolbar. Click it and drag to the right until you have the desired number of columns. When you let go of the mouse button, Word 2002 will create the desired column structure.



To revise the column structure, highlight the section that you want to change and then click Format => Columns to open the Columns dialog box and make any necessary changes. Any modifications you make to column structure will be updated in the document as soon as you click OK.


Modify document layout and Page Setup options

To change a document’s page orientation, click File => Page Setup, ensure that you are on the Margins tab, and select either Portrait or Landscape under Orientation. By default, the orientation change affects every page in the document. To change the page orientation for part of a document, select the text to which the orientation change will apply, open the Page Setup dialog box, and choose Selected text from the Apply to: drop-down list box. Word 2002 will automatically insert section breaks before and after the selected text to accommodate the change in page orientation. Alternatively, choose This point forward from the Apply to: drop-down list if you want the change to affect wherever your cursor is placed in the document through the rest of the document.



Incidentally, another method of opening Page Setup dialog box is by double-clicking inside the white space of the horizontal ruler.


Although it is possible to set top, bottom, left and right margins by using the horizontal and vertical rulers in Print Layout view, a more precise method is by opening the Page Setup dialog box and adjusting the margin values listed on the Margins tab.


The Paper tab of the Page Setup dialog box allows you to specify the paper type, paper dimensions and which printer tray the pages are coming from.



The Page Setup dialog box Layout tab allows you to specify where you want the current section to begin, how you want to handle header and footer positioning, and how you want to specify vertical page alignment.


Create and modify tables

There are many ways to create ad Word table:

1. Draw the table using the Draw Table button on the Tables and Borders

toolbar (found by clicking the Tables and Borders button on the Standard

toolbar, or by clicking Table => Draw Table).


2. Clicking the Insert Table button on the Standard toolbar and dragging to

select the desired number of rows and columns.


3. Clicking Table => Insert => Table... and specifying table dimensions in the

Insert Table dialog box.

For accuracy and simplicity, I will discuss only the third option. After placing your insertion point where you would like the table to appear and opening the Insert Table dialog box, specify the number of columns and the number of rows, columnwidth options, and whether you would like to apply an AutoFormat to the table.


Formatting Tables

Once you have created the table, you have a tremendous number of options available for formatting the way data looks and behaves in the table. The first rule is to select the desired cell(s), row(s), or column(s) before making any formatting decision. Select the entire table by placing the cursor anywhere inside the table and clicking ALT+double-click. Try double-clicking inside the table or on a selected cell, column or row- there are many options available there. Remember also that the Table menu contains all of these options, plus more. For global table properties, click Table => Table Properties.

You can insert and delete rows and columns, and change cell formats within a table. To add rows or columns to a table, select the same number of rows or columns as the number of rows or columns that you want to insert. Next, click Table => Insert, and select the appropriate option from the cascading submenu. Alternatively, you can quickly add a row at the end of a table by clicking the last cell of the last row and pressing the TAB key. To add a column to the right of the last column in a table, click just outside the rightmost column. Then click Table => Insert and click Columns to the Right in the cascading submenu. To resize a table, click within the table and rest the mouse pointer in the table until the table resize handle appears. Rest the pointer on the table resize handle until a double-headed arrow appears, and drag the table boundary to the desired size. To make multiple rows or columns the same size, select the columns or rows that you want to make the same size, right-click in a highlighted area and select either Distribute Columns Evenly or Distribute Rows Evenly from the shortcut menu. To change the space between cells in a table, place your insertion point within the table and click Table => Properties.... On the Table tab, click Options.... Under Default cell spacing, select Allow spacing between cells and enter the appropriate measurement. To modify the cell format, select and then right-click the cell. A shortcut menu will appear. You can then select the formatting options that you want from there. To change the column width to a specific measurement, click a cell in the appropriate column. Then, click Table => Table Properties... and click the Column tab. Finally, choose the options that you want. To make the columns in a table automatically fit the contents, click inside the table, click Table => AutoFit, and then click AutoFit to Contents from the cascading submenu. To change a row height to a specific measurement, click a cell in the desired row. Click Table => Properties..., and then click the Row tab. Finally, select the options you want. To merge two or more cells into a single, larger cell, select the desired cells and click Table => Merge Cells. To reverse the process, select the desired cells and click Table => Split Cells. To move an entire table, click inside the table and hover your mouse pointer in the upper right portion of the table until the table move handle appears. Click and drag the table move handle to move the table.

Preview and print documents, envelopes, and labels

To print a single copy of the active document using your default printer with its default settings, click the Print button on the Standard toolbar. To print with options, press CTRL+P or click File => Print. The Print dialog box allows you to change the printer in use, set properties for that printer, adjust the number of pages to be printed, and the number of copies to be printed (among several other options). To preview a document before you send it to the printer, switch to Print Preview mode by clicking the Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar or by clicking File => Print Preview. Click anywhere on the document to zoom in; click again to zoom out. The Print Preview toolbar is actually quite useful. You should spend some time getting to know each of this toolbar's functions. To create either an envelope or a mailing label, click Tools => Letters and Mailings => Envelopes and Labels. In the Envelopes and Labels dialog box, fill in the delivery address and return address. Click Print to print the label. To instruct Word 2002 to automatically place your name and address in the Return address: box of the Envelopes and Labels dialog, click Tools => Options => User Information and fill out the Name: and Mailing Address: portions of the dialog box. Word 2002 gives you the choice of printing one copy of an envelope or a label, adding the envelope to your document, or creating a separate document for your mailing label sheet. Although the Envelopes and Labels function is fine for doing single envelopes or a for creating a sheet of single-address mailing labels, make sure to use Word 2002’s Mail Merge function for cranking out multiple-address envelope and mailing label sets.

Managing Documents

Manage files and folders for documents

To locate and open an existing Word document, press CTRL+O, click the Open button on the Standard toolbar, or click File => Open. You can navigate to your desired file by using the Places bar or by opening the Look in: drop-down list box. If the file you are looking for is not a Word .DOC file, change the search file extension in the Files of type: drop-down list box.

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Click the arrow to the right of Open in the Open dialog box to open a copy of the document or to open the document as read-only. The Open and Repair option gives Word 2002 an opportunity to repair a corrupted Word document. Note that you can see a preview of most Word documents by selecting Preview from the Views menu in the Open dialog box toolbar.

Create documents using templates

Creating a new document using the New Blank Document button gives you a new document based upon the Normal template. To create a new document based on another template, click File => New.... The New Document task pane allows you to open a recently used document, open a brand new .DOC or .HTML document, create a new document based upon an already existing document, or create a new document based upon another template. Click General Templates... from the New from template list to see the familiar New dialog box.

Save documents using different names and file formats

To save a document, press CTRL+S, click the Save button on the Standard toolbar, or click File => Save. To save a document in a different location, under a different name, or in an alternate file format, click File => Save As.... Use the Create New Folder button on the Save As dialog box toolbar to create a new folder to store your new document in.

Working With Graphics

Insert images and graphics

To insert graphic objects into a document, place the insertion point where you would like the graphic to appear. Next, click the appropriate button or choose the appropriate menu command depending upon the type of art desired. 1. For WordArt, click the Insert WordArt button on the Drawing toolbar or click Insert => Picture => Word Art.... Browse the WordArt Gallery for the desired image. 2. For Clip Art, click the Insert Clip Art button on the Drawing toolbar or click Insert => Picture => ClipArt.... The Insert Clip Art task pane appears. Enter the image type you are interested in under Search text: and click Search. Alternatively, click Clip Organizer... under See also if you want to browse the Microsoft Clip Organizer directly. The Microsoft Clip Organizer is pretty cool. You can browse the different image categories in the tree pane, and then hover over the image in the right pane to obtain detailed image information, such as its file size, image dimensions and file type. Click the small black arrow on a piece of clip art and a menu appears, offering you several different options for using the clip art. 3. For images that are not a part of the Microsoft Clip Gallery, click Insert => Picture => From File.... Next, browse for the desired image. Use the black arrow on the right border of the Insert button in the Insert Picture dialog box to either insert, link, or insert AND link the graphic in your Word 2002 document. Once a graphic is in your document, all of the usual resizing and formatting tools apply: click the image once to show resize handles; use the corner resize handles to resize the image without distorting it; right-click inside the image and choose Format Picture... from the shortcut menu to bring up the Format Picture dialog box and adjust image options such as wrapping style.

Create and modify diagrams and charts

With Word 2002, you can create a Cycle, Target, Radial, Venn, or Pyramid diagram, or you can create an organizational chart. The first step in the process is to click the Insert Diagram or Organization Chart button from the Drawing toolbar. Alternatively, you could click Insert => Diagram.... Next, select the type of diagram you want from the Diagram Gallery dialog box. After your chosen diagram type appears, you can add text in the appropriate locations. The following graphic displays a Target diagram before data has been added.

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The Diagram toolbar offers many different options for modifying the layout and structure of your diagram. You can even change your diagram on-the-fly by making a selection from the Change to drop-down list on the Diagram toolbar. In terms of creating an organization chart, you can use Word 2002’s placeholder text and Organization Chart toolbar options to construct your organization chart.

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Workgroup Collaboration

Compare and merge documents

To compare an original document and an edited copy, open the edited copy and click Tools => Compare and Merge Documents.... Browse to the original document, and click Merge. Clicking the black arrow on the Merge button will give you the requisite advanced options. The changes between the original version and the edited version will be displayed using Word’s revision marking feature. Added text will appear in underline; deleted text will appear in strikethrough.

View and edit comments

To add a comment to a document, place your cursor in the appropriate location or highlight the desired text and click Insert => Comment. If your are in Print Layout view, the comment will appear as a comment balloon, into which you can type your comment.

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If you are in Normal view, the reviewing pane will appear. You can then insert your comment text. To close the reviewing pane, click the Reviewing Pane button on the Reviewing toolbar. If you don’t see the Reviewing toolbar, right-click any existing toolbar button and select Reviewing from the toolbar list.

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In Normal view, commented text appears inside colored brackets. Hover your mouse over the highlighted text to reveal the comment. To edit a comment in Print Layout view, simply click inside the comment balloon and make your edits there. In Normal view, right-click the comment and choose Edit Comment from the shortcut menu. The Reviewing Pane will then open. To delete a comment from Print Layout view, right-click the comment balloon and choose Delete Comment from the shortcut menu. In Normal view, right-click the highlighted text and choose Delete Comment from the shortcut menu.

Convert documents into Web pages

To convert an existing Word 2002 document into a Web page, click File => Save As Web Page....In the Save As dialog box, browse to your desired save location and click Save. To change the page title, click Change Title.... This title will appear in the browser window when the page is viewed in a browser.